There's an interesting article in the August 2, 2008 issue of The Economist about "Cults of violence" in Nigeria. Campus "cults" have arisen in Nigeria's university system that are something along the lines of a cross between a fraternity and a criminal gang. These "cults" have killed 115 students and teachers between 1993 and 2003, according to the Exam Ethics Project. The first such group, the Pyrates Confraternity, was founded by Wole Soyinka, a Nobel prizewinner in literature, in 1952 at the University of Ibadan. Subsequent groups had names like the Black Axe, the Vikings Confraternity, and the Klansmen Konfraternity. Members of these groups were originally elite students who have moved on to positions of authority in Nigeria. The groups charge membership fees, but members typically make the money back by performing actions for the group, such as acting on behalf of politicians connected to the group. Such actions of late have included harassment, violence, and murder. Rivers State University banned "cultism" in 2004, but since the groups are provided with cash and weapons by politicians, the ban has had little effect.